Contributed By Dr Thimappa Hegde
Recap... Chapter 13 KSHETRA KSHETRAJNA VIBHAGA YOGA
Contributed by Sri Ullas
1. Prathama Shatkam (Ch 1 to 6) – Karma Yoga
2. Madhyama Shatkam (Ch 7 to 12) – Upasana Yoga
3. Charama Shatkam (Ch 13 to 18) – Jnana Yoga
Questions by Arjuna
1. Anatma – Prakriti, Kshetra
2. Atma – Purusha, Kshetrajna, Jneyam
What is Anatma?
•Everything that can be experienced (objectifiable)
•Universe, Heavens, Body, Mind
•With attributes (सगुण)
•Changing (सविकार): Manifest <-> Unmanifest
What is Atma?
•Unobjectifiable Subject – Must for any objectification
•Sentient & Independent
•All Pervading & Eternal
•Unique & Immovable (e.g. Space, Light)
•Indivisible, Uncontaminable & Substratum
•Virtues – Required for gaining atma jnanam
•Study + Values = Transformation
•Study – Values = Information
•20 values: Four-fold Qualification (साधन चतुष्टय)
•4Ds: Discrimination, Dispassion, Discipline, Desire
Stages to attain knowledge
•Karma Yoga – Remove impurities
•Upasana Yoga – Focused mind
•Sravanam – Systematic study under a guru
•Mananam – Doubt Removal (after sravanam)
•Nidhidyasanam – Dwelling upon the teaching
Benefits – Jeevan Mukti
•Freedom from Raga/Dvesha by Change of vision
•सर्वत्र सम दर्शनम – Water instead of waves
•Akarta and Abhokta – Matter is interacting in my presence
•Brahmatvam - Limitlessness
Chapter 14 GUNATRAYA GUNATITHA VIBHAGA YOGA
Om Asato Maa Sad-Gamaya
Apparent to the Real Mithya to Sathya
1st Fundamental Laws of Vedanta
I am different from whatever I experience
•I experience the world I am not-the world
• I experience my body I am not-my body
•I experience my mind I am not -my mind
1st Fundamental Laws of Vedanta
•I am different from whatever I experience
•I am the Kshetrajna and that I experience is Kshetra -13th ch
•I am the Drik and all that I experience is Drishyam.
•I am the Purusha and that I experience is Prakriti
•I am Sathya and that I experience is Mithya
•I am Brahman and that I experience is Jagat
•kṣhetrajñaṁ chāpi māṁ viddhi sarvakṣhetreṣhu bhārata
2nd Fundamental Laws of Vedanta
All attributes I experience belong to the experienced objects and not to me the experiencer the subject-the Atma
I as Atma, am Nirguna.
No attributes, infinite
•Time, Eternal, Nithya
•Space, all pervading
•Objects, not limited to this body, I am all
Bhagwan Shri Ramana Maharishi- Naham Deham Koham Soham
Who Am I ?
that which illumines the
•Ego, MIND, BODY, THE WORLD
•The Sat-Chit-Ananta – The Atma
•I am without ATTRIBUTES - NIRGUNA
•Transcending form is the real transformation of Vedanta
Aim of Vedanta
• Self Ignorance is the cause of all my problems.
• Correction by realizing that I am not this Body Mind
• This understanding would release me from the bondage
and give me a sense of ANANTA or MOKSHA
Satsangatve nissangatvam nissangatve nirmohatvam,
nirmohatve niscalatattvam niscalatattve jivanmuktiH
GLORY OF JNANAM & CREATION AS A PRELUDE
CHAPTER 14 – SHLOKA 14.2 & 14.3
Contributed By Dr. Sunder
GUNA TRAYA - LAKSHANA, BANDHANA PRAKARA & LINGAM
Contributed By Dr Sanjay Mehrotra
Verse 9 – GunatriyaVibhaga Yoga
Sree Gurubhyo Namaha:
In the previous verses Krishna describes the Nature of The 3 Gunas – Satva, Rajas & Tamas
In this verse Krishna has concluded the description – of Bandaha Prakarah – describing in a nutshell, how each Guna – binds a person or creates an Addiction.
Verse goes like this:
sattvaṃ sukhē sañjayati rajaḥ karmaṇi bhārata |
jñānamāvṛtya tu tamaḥ pramādē sañjayatyuta || 14.9 ||
Sattva binds (one) to pleasure, Rajas (binds one) to action; Whereas Tamas
binds (one) to negligence by veiling the discriminative power, Oh Arjuna!
sattvaṃ sukhē sañjayati Satva binds to Sukham – Pleasure – Although, Sattva appears to be a elevated Guna but it binds a person to Sukham – Quietitude, Aloofness, Tranquility, which means that Satoguna Pradhan person may get bound to states described. ( But it is a Bondage!)
rajaḥ karmaṇi bhārata Rajas would bind to Karmaani! Which means a Rajoguna pradhan person would be bound to doing Karma all the time, so the addiction here is Karma Sangani.
Addiction to Sattva as well as Karma is problem – for example addiction to Meditation is a problem & Vedanta says addiction to even Shastra is also a problem, it does not mean we should stop Shastra vichara, though!!
Addiction to Tamo guna is what ? PRAMADE , which means addiction to laziness, sleep, carelessness!
And how does all this happen ?
By veiling the discriminative power or clarity of the mind, Addiction of any kind would make the water muddy – lack of clarity!
In the 10th Verse Krishna describes to Arjuna :
Sattva – manifests by overpowering Rajas & Tamas.
Rajas – by overpowering the Tamas & Sattva.
Tamas – by overpowering the Sattva & Rajas.
In the manifest Universe – The 3 Gunas are unequally distributed, which is the basis of the Yugas also where one of the Gunas predominate.
After the destruction of the Universe – Prayalayam - 3 gunas go into equilibrium and manifestation of the Universe again unequilibrium.
sarvadvārēṣu dēhē'smin prakāśa upajāyatē |
jñānaṁ yadā tadā vidyādvivṛddhaṁ sattvamityuta || 14.11 ||
Sarva dwareshu – When through all the Indrias which are the receivers – state of light or luminosity is expressed – Prakasha Upajayate
All the sense organs are receiving at their best in the most tranquil state!
How is this state achieved ? By Jnanam then know that Sattva has become predominant. Vivraddham stvamityuta
GUNATRAYA - GATI & PHALAM
CHAPTER 14 – SHLOKA 14.14 to 14.15
Contributed By Dr Rekha
What happens to the agnani jeeva after death? Where does it travel?
Lord Krishna addresses this topic in Verses 14.14,14.15 and 14.18
It depends on which of the 3 gunas was predominant at the time of death
4th topic- Gathi
yadā sattvē pravṛddhē tu pralayaṃ yāti dēhabhṛt |
tadōttamavidāṃ lōkānamalān pratipadyatē || 14.14 ||
If a person dies when satva is predominant, then he attains (those) pure
worlds belonging to the Upāsakās of great deities.
rajasi pralayaṃ gatvā karmasaṅgiṣu jāyatē |
tathā pralīnastamasi mūḍhayōniṣu jāyatē || 14.15 ||
Having died when rajas is predominant, one is born amidst those who are
attached to action. Likewise, having died when tamas is predominant, one is born
in the wombs of deluded beings.
What are the consequences of our gunas in this life?
Lord Krishna addresses this topic in Verses 14.16 & 14.17
5th topic- Phalam
karmaṇaḥ sukṛtasya''huḥ sāttvikaṃ nirmalaṃ phalam |
rajasastu phalaṃ duḥkhamajñānaṃ tamasaḥ phalam || 14.16 ||
(Scriptures) say that the result of sattvic action is pure puṇya. The result of
rajasic (action) is sorrow. Whereas the result of tamasic (action) is ignorance.
BECOME GUNATITHA WITH ATMA JNANAM
CHAPTER 14 - SHLOKA 14.19
Contributed by Sri Ullas
Anatma and Gunas
•Ahamkara = Body Mind Complex + (Reflected) Consciousness
•Body and Mind are made of Prakriti (Saguna)
•All products of prakriti (anatma):
•Cannot escape the gunas: Only reshuffle happens
•All gunas are binding: Iron or Golden Handcuffs
Consequences of Body Identification
•Strong Raga and Dvesha
•Dissatisfied bhokta to karta to still dissatisfied bhokta cycle
•Ideal Setup – Can’t create nor preserve permanently
•Always busy and no time for contemplation on real nature
•Transcend (Go beyond) these gunas – गुणातीत
•Body Mind can not be made nirguna
•Consciousness also cannot be made nirguna
•Right knowledge leading to right identification
•Man vs Son/Husband/Father
•Merge in Ishvara
•See the body objectively
•Birth, old age, death – Nature and not problems of body
•All bodily problems become insignificant e.g. Sun vs Stars
Take home message
•Body, mind have gunas which are binding
•Transcend gunas by right identification that I am consciousness- Jivan Mukti
GUNATITHA LINGAM ACHARA & SADHANA
CHAPTER 14 - SHLOKA 14.23 to 14.26
Contributed By Dr. Komal Prasad
udāsīnavad āsīno guṇair yo na vicālyate guṇā vartanta ity eva yovatiṣṭhati neṅgate 14.23
He remains as if indifferent. He is not disturbed by the guṇas. He does not
waver. He remains firm (with the understanding) that the guṇas alone interact.
Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-Idam
Om ShaantihShaantihShaantih ||