Adi Guru Sri Dakshinamurti
Sadashiva Samarambha Shankarayacharya Madhyama
Asmad Acharya Pariyantam Vande Guru Parampara
Guru Gita is from the Skanda Purana where Lord Shiva explains to Goddess Parvati, the significance of a Guru
Guru Gita consist of about 300 slokas
Adi Sankaracharya explains the word Guru- The word Gu stands for darkness and
Ru stands for dispelling darkness, thus it means that Guru is one who dispels darkness or ignorance
Gururdevo Maheshvarah |
Gurur Sakshath Param Brahma
Tasmayi shri guruvenamaha
Tasmayi means I offer my prostration in gratitude.
To such a glorious Guru,
Shri Guru means a wealthy guru – internal wealth of knowledge.
What does a Guru do?
He takes away what you think you have but don’t (ego/delusions)
He gives you what you already have but don’t know you have it, and that is your true or higher self, the Atma
kaake lagoon paay
Balihari guru aapne
Swami Vivekananda and the Doctor
All accomplishments, material or spiritual are the products of years of Sadhanas.
Sadhana, Sadhyam, Sadhaka, Sidhaha
Sādhanā means a course of discipline that we undertake to accomplish a goal – the goal is called Sādhyam.
A Sādhaka. Is one who takes to this discipline.
Sadhaka to Siddhaha.
A Sadhaka uses Sadhana to achieve his goal, the Sadhyam and become a Siddha.
Six Topics we must Know
Need for a Guru.
vyavasāyātmikā buddhirēkēha kurunandana|
bahuśākhā hyanantāśca 2.41
41. Oh Arjuna! (There is only) one clear understanding in this field. However, the
notions of those without clarity are many branched and endless.
Message of Vedanta. Good News
1. Mala. Impurity, Kama, Krodha, etc.
2. Vikshepa, restless Mind
3. Avarna, Ignorant
Three Blocks.Three Solutions. Sadhanas
1. Mala. Impurity, Kama Krodha. Karma Yoga.
2. Vikshepa, restless Mind. Upanasa Yoga.
3. Avarna, Ignorant. Gnana Yoga.
Malam - The Six Impurities,
Mada Pride/ arrogance
Karma YogaWork as Worship.
Karma Yogavs Karmi. Gita Chapters 2,3,4,5- •Right action and the right attitude
•Right Action. Sathwik, Selfless.
•Right Attitude Ishwara Arpana/ Prasada Bhava.
•Skill in Action. No Karma.
buddhiyuktō jahātīha ubhē sukṛtaduṣkṛtē|
tasmādyōgāya yujyasva yōgaḥ karmasu kauśalam || 2.50 ||
Inaction in Action Right action
Satvik action benefits many selfless,
Rajasic is selfish for self and family.
Tamasic, I benefit at the cost of others.
•Ishwara arpana Bhava. Nara seva Narayana seva
•Mānava Sevā is Mādhava Sevā.
•Benefit of Karma yoga, to give jnana yogyatha.
•Whatever karma phalam we get we should accept it as prasada
•The aim of our Sadhana is to have the strength of mind to accept whatever the result of our actions.
•Om Sarve Bavantu Sukhinaha
•Sarve santu niramayaha
•Sarve bhadrami pashyantu
•Ma kaschid dukha bak bavate
Karma Yogagives Manojaya
•Moksha is attained only through self-knowledge.
•Self-knowledge is gained only through a prepared mind.
•This preparation of the mind is called manojaya .
•Karma Yoga gives is Manojaya.
Om Bhur Bhuvaḥ Swaḥ
Bhargo Devasya Dheemahi
Dhiyo Yonaḥ Prachodayāt
Symbolic meaning: I meditate on That Sun who is the illumine of the three worlds(Body Mind & Intellect), who is an ideal of tireless service, the warmth of love and light of knowledge. May That Sun illumine our Intellect and inspire us to grow Holistically in life.
Upāsana Yoga Meditations.
•The purpose of Upāsana Yoga is to make our personality fit for the accomplishment of the Purushārtha
•'Upasana' in Sanskrit literally means "Sitting near"
•A method to come close to God
•Upasana is a mental activity involving meditating upon some aspect of nature and see it as God.
•Important Gita and Upanishad Mantras
Upasana Yoga for a restless mind
•parāñci khāni vyatṛṇat svayambhῡs
•tasmāt parāṅ paśyati nāntarātman:
•kaś cid dhīraḥ pratyag-ātmānam aikṣad
•āvṛtta-cakṣur amṛtatvam icchan.
•In Kathopanishad, our very personality is compared to a vehicle for reaching the goal.
•Just as a vehicle should be in a fit condition for travelling and successfully reaching the goal, our personality must be in a fit condition to attain our Purusharthas.
The three Layers
•Kāyikam. the body.
•Vāchikam the speech.
•Manasa– our mind.
•Anudvega Karam (Hurt)
•Priyam (Pleasing )
Upasana. Mental Activity - 6th chapter of the Gita.
•All forms of Meditations.
You are your thoughts Gautama Buddha
“Watch your thoughts, they become words
Watch your words, they become actions
Watch your actions, they become habits
Watch your habits, they become character
Watch your character, for it becomes…
ॐ सह नाववतु । Om Saha Naav[au]-Avatu |
May He protect both of us
सह नौ भुनक्तु । Saha Nau Bhunaktu |
Let us enjoy this learning process.
सह वीर्यं करवावहै । Saha Viiryam Karavaavahai |
Let us both put forth our effort.
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु Tejasvi Naav[au]-Adhiitam-Astu
May our learning be effective.
मा विद्विषावहै । Maa Vidvissaavahai
May there be no misunderstanding between us.
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥ Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih ||
1.Knowledge – Jñānam Om Saha Naav[au]-Avatu
2.The Benefit of Knowledge -Jñānaphalam Saha Nau Bhunaktu |
3. Effort-- Prayatna Saha Viiryam Karavaavahai |
4. Memory power-- Medhā Śhakti –Tejasvi Naav[au]-Adhiitam-Astu
5.Healthy Relationship – Shraddha. Maa Vidvissaavahai |
Gnana Yoga- removes Avarna
Atma Jnana Yoga
Jnāna or knowledge, of what ?
•Of Self-knowledge, Atma Jnāna, i.e. knowledge regarding oneself.
• Essential nature of “I”, the basic nature of “I”,
•The real nature of “I” or the higher nature of “I”.
• In the scriptures the real “I” is called Ātmā.
Self-knowledge gives us freedom or Moksha
•The highest goal called Moksha.
•So Jnāna Yoga gives Mokshā.
What is meant by Moksha?
•Moksha is freedom from bondage or dependence.
•This bondage is caused by the first three Purushārthas namely Dharma, Artha, Kāma.
Anything or being in the creation can cause bondage
Bondage is of two types:
- When an object is present
- When an object is not present there is loneliness or emptiness
What is moksha or liberation ? Jeevan Mukti
•Bondage means confinement, restriction or limitation
•All of us experience the limitation – bodily limitations, intellectual limitation, resource limitation – this is called bandha or bondage
•All the time it is a struggle to overcome these limitations
• We want to be in charge or in control of over lives
• Many things we don’t want to happen, keep happening
• And many things we want to happen, do not happen at all. J M
Virtues of Inner freedom: acceptance, courage and discretion.
•The threefold virtues are presented in a prayer called Serenity prayer.
•Oh Lord, grant me the serenity to accept what cannot be changed in life,
•the courage to change what can be changed,
•And grant me the wisdom to know what can and cannot be changed
•These are the three virtues – acceptance, courage and discretion.
How can I get Self-Knowledge ?
•Any Jnānam can be attained only by one method and that is by using the instrument of knowledge
•In Sanskrit an instrument of knowledge is called Pramānam
Pramātā uses Pramānam and acquires Pramā about Prameyam.
The one who uses the instrument of knowledge is called Pramātā and the knowledge that is generated i.e. the Jnānam is called Pramā and the object that is known is called Prameyam.
ShāstraPramānam – Scripture: ShabdaPramānam.
•It has to be brought from the outside like a mirror and therefore it is called Apaurusheya Pramānam.
•This means not naturally available to human being and it has to be brought from outside.
Information – Direct Experience dichotomy
Normally books deal with objects, places and people and my objective is that I should get the information first , and then have direct experience by contacting the object.
E.g. I read what is Niagara Falls and when I go there actually only then will I get direct experience.
The Need for a Guru
We will never come in contact with the Self because we are the Self.
Hence the information – direct experience dichotomy does not exist in Self-knowledge.
But we incorrectly study the scriptures with this orientation of first book knowledge then direct experience.
Hence we never know how to utilise the scriptures properly and therefore we never get the self-knowledge if we study the scriptures ourselves.
•Consists of a threefold exercise called Shravanam, Mananam and Nididhyāsanam.
Shravanam – Listening.
•Shravanam means listening to the scriptural teaching by a competent guide.
•Therefore this teaching should be handled by someone who knows expertly how to handle difficulties and gives self-knowledge.
Mananam – Reflection / Consolidation of intellectual understanding
•Reflect on the teaching and clear out all my doubts.
•Eg I am not my body
•I am immortal.
Mananam is an intellectual process to clear all doubts.
Hence Mananam removes all obstacles in the intellect and makes the knowledge into doubtless knowledge or conviction.
•firm understanding with regards to my essential nature my real or higher nature.
•Shravanam removes ignorance,
•Mananam removes doubts.
tryambakam = the three-eyed one
yajāmahe = We adore, honour and worship.
sugandhim = sweet fragrance.
puṣṭi = A fullness of life.
vardhanam = One who nourishes and strengthens health and wealth.
puṣṭi+vardhanam = The one who nourishes others and ensures their fullness.
urvārukam-iva = like the cucumber or melon or a big peach.
bandhanān = “from captivity”.
mṛtyormukṣīya = Free, liberate From death.
mā’mṛtāt = immortality.
Trilokeshwara-manushya, deva, shiva
Tripurantaka- pride,desire, jealousy
Trishakti- Iccha,Kriya, Jnana
Triputi saara- Jiva,jagat,Ishwara
Salt Doll and Bhakti
By constantly keeping one’s attention on the Source, the ego is dissolved in that Source, like a salt doll in the sea.
Bhaktimeans - Devotion
Bhakti is love directed towards a higher principle, reverential or sacred like parents, Guru, Nation or God
God as Means or God as Goal.
Who do you love the most?
Everyone loves himself or herself the most.
Self love is most intense.
Means Love, End Love, Self Love.
There is a gradation in the intensity of love.
Love of the means is the least in its intensity,
Love of the end is mediocre.
Love of oneself is the highest form of love.
Manda, Madhyama, Uttama
Means love is called Manda,
End love is called Madhyama
Self love is called Uttama based on the intensity of love.
Love towards God The intensity of love depends upon how you look upon God.
Is God a means,
Is God my goal
Do I see God as My Self- Soham Asmi .
God is dear, dearer, dearest.
What is Bhakti Yoga ?
Bhakti Yoga is not an exclusive or separate Sadhana.
It is the entire range of disciplines consisting of all the three sadhanas.
The first stage of Bhakti Yoga is Karma Yoga.
The second stage is Upāsana Yoga
The last stage is Jnāna Yoga.
Karma Bhakti Yoga
In Karma Yoga, the attitude is dedicating all actions to the Lord and accepting without resistance all the consequences of my actions.
Therefore a Karma Yogi should necessarily have Bhakti all the time because every action is dedicated to the Lord.
In Upāsana Yoga, I have to meditate upon the Lord for developing mental discipline and integration.
How can I meditate upon Lord if I don’t have Bhakti – these include Mānasa Pūja, Mānasa Pārāyanam, Mānasa Japa.
Therefore Upāsana Yoga must also take place in the atmosphere of Bhakti.
Before any study of scriptures, we start with a prayer and end with a prayer.
In Jnāna Yoga we are enquiring into our own real nature, discovering the identity of our real nature with the nature of God. therefore self-realisation or discovery is nothing but God discovery.
Therefore Jnāna Yoga also involves Bhakti. Principle of God Jnanam of God
When we talk of Bhakti, it is love or devotion towards God.
Without understanding the principle of God, how can we discuss the topic of devotion?
Because integral part of love is the object of love.
3 Definitions of God
Scriptures give three definitions of God depending on the maturity of the seeker and the intellectual calibre of the seeker.
Scriptures give three definitions of God
God as the Creator. Ekha Roopa.
God as the Creation. Aneka Roopa.
God as the Support. Aroopa. God as the Support of the World
first, we said, God created the world, and now we say, God, has become the world.
Third is Jagat Adhishthānam Īshvara
This is the highest and the toughest and the culmination. In this we say, God did not become the world. This is because the next question will be – Are the ugly things, God, as well? How can I accept bad also as God?
ArūpaĪshvara – formless God.
And since God transcends all the superficial forms of the creation, no particular form belongs to God. Therefore that God is Adhishthānam Īshvara is Arūpa Īshvara – formless God.
Bhakti. Based on Intensity ofLove of God
Sādhanā based Bhakti
Karma Yoga Rūpa Bhakti,
Upāsana Yoga Rūpa Bhakti
Jnāna Yoga Rūpa Bhakti
Bhakti based on my understanding of God –
Eka Rūpa Bhakti,
Aneka Rūpa Bhakti
Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-IdamPuurnnaat-Purnnam-Udacyate
Om ShaantihShaantihShaantih ||