Contributed By Dr Thimappa Hegde
Kena Upanishad – Class 6
19th February 2021
Summary of Previous Class
Contributed by Dr. Ahalya
•Shantipata. Om Sahana Vavatu
•Beyond Dharma and adharma
•Om, Sarva Vedanta siddhanta
•Ratha Kalpana, Jeeva Yatra
•The wise look inwards
अन्यत्र धर्मादन्यत्राधर्मादन्यत्रास्मात्कृताकृतात् ।
अन्यत्र भूताच्च भव्याच्च यत्तत्पश्यसि तद्वद ॥ १14
Tell (me) that which you see as different from dharma, different from adharma,
different from this cause and effect, (and) different from past and future.
सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति तपांसि सर्वाणि च यद्वदन्ति।
यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति तत्ते पदं संग्रहेण ब्रवीम्योमित्येतत् ॥
सर्वे वेदा- all the vedas ,यत् पदम् that goal/which goal , आमनन्ति proclaim or declare ,तपांसि acts of penance
सर्वाणि all , वदन्ति यत् which are declared , यत् इच्छन्तः wishing for which , ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति lead the life of
bramhachari , तत् पदं ते that goal , सङ्ग्रहेण ब्रवीमि I will tell you briefly, .ॐ इति एतत् It is Om.
Lord Yama says the goal which all vedas praise or declare , which all
penances proclaim and wishing for which they lead the life of bramhacharya
that goal / word I will briefly tell you. It is Om.
ātmānagṁrathinaṁ viddhiḥ, śarīragṁ rathamēvatu I
buddhiṁtu sārathiṁviddhi, manaḥpragrahamēva ca II
विद्धि – viddhi- Know आत्मानम् – ātmānam - the jīvātmā रथिनम् – rathinam - to be the master of the chariot शरीरम् – śarīram - (and) the physical body रथम् एव तु – rathameva tu - to be the chariot. विद्धि – viddhi – Know बुद्धिं तु – buddhiṁ tu - the intellect सारथिम् – sārathim - to be the charioteer च मनः – ca manaḥ - and the mind प्रग्रहम् एव - to be the reins.
Know the jīvātmā to be the master of the chariot (and) the physical body to be the chariot. Know the intellect to be the charioteer and the mind to be the reins.
उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत ।
क्शुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति ॥ १४ ॥
. Arise, awake; having reached the great, learn; the edge of a razor is sharp and impassable; that path, the intelligent say, is hard to go by.
पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भूस्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् । कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ १
´The Lord destroyed the sense organs (by making them) extrovert. Therefore,
´everyone perceives outside, not the Ātmā within. Desiring immortality, a rare
´discriminative one with withdrawn eyes sees the Ātmā within.
Contributed by Dr. Thimappa Hegde
Om Akhanda Manadalakaram
Vyaptam yena Charaacharam
Tadpadam Darshitam Yena
Tasmai Sri Guruve Namaha
Sama Veda, Shantipata
It has 4 chapters, 35 mantras
First word is Kena , Sweet, Chilli
Ear of the ear
Kena Upanishad Shāntipāt
Contributed by Dr Sunder
oṁ āpyāyantu mamāṅgāni vākprāṇaścakṣuḥ śrotram atho balam indriyāṇi ca sarvāṇi | sarvaṁ brahmaupaniṣadam | māhaṁ brahma nirākuryām | mā mā brahma nirākarot anirākaraṇamastu anirākaraṇaṁ me astu | tadātmani nirate ya upaniṣatsu dharmāḥ te mayi santu | te mayi santu || oṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||
oṃ keneṣitaṃ patati preṣitaṃ manaḥ kena prāṇaḥ prathamaḥ praiti yuktaḥ |
keneṣitāṃ vācamimāṃ vadanti cakṣuḥ śrotraṃ ka u devo yunakti || 1.1 ||
Contributed by Sri Shivakumar
KENA UPANISHAD Mantra-1
Kena Ishitam Mana Preshitam Patati
Kena Yuktha Prathama Prana Praiti
Kena Ishitam Imam Vaacham Vadanti
Chakshu Shrotram Kahu Devaha Yunakti
“what is that which makes this inert body-mind sense complex Sentient?”
Contributed by Dr. Netra
manasah manah yad
vaachah ha vaacham
sa u praanasya praanah
yadvācānabhyuditaṃ yena vāgabhyudyate |
tadeva brahma tvaṃ viddhi nedaṃ yadidamupāsate || 1.5 ||
Contributed by Thimappa Hegde
Atma and Pramata
•yadvācānabhyuditaṃ yena vāgabhyudyate
•tadeva brahma tvaṃ viddhi nedaṃ yadidamupāsate || 4
•That which is not known (objectified) by the speech faculty,
•But that by which the function of speech is possible
•Know that to be the Brahman, not what we here worship.
Atmacan never be a Prameyam.
In Sanskrit the knower is called Pramata.
The instrument by which things are to be known are Pramanam like eyes, ears etc.
Everything that can be known is Prameyam.
Atma is one thing which will never be a Prameyam.
Thus Brahman cannot be known by a Pramanam.
Then what is the proof for the existence of the Pramata/ Knower/ Atma/eye or camera
•All knowledge is possible only because of the presence of Pramata/ Knower
•The Pramata is evident in every experience .
•Scriptures thus say Pramata need not be known since it is evident in every experience.
•Pramata is never known through the eye, ear, mind since the eye, ear, mind themselves functioning due to Pramata.
What is Self Realization
•Self-realization is dropping the desire to know the Self with the knowledge that the Self-need not be realized because the Self is ever evident in and through every experience.
•Shift your attention to the ever present Self
•This is the pure Consciousness principle.
Atma and Pramata
•Thus atma has two states the original intrinsic status is called Consciousness and the incidental status is called Pramata when the Pramanam and Prameyam are available.
• With the availability of the creation the Pramata appears, without the creation Pure Consciousness alone exists.
This mantra is a mahavakyam
It is that pure consciousness which is referred to in this mantra.
This mantra is a mahavakyam since the teacher is revealing the Brahman as the knower the subject principle.
All our life we have worshiped Gods as objects of experience, putting them in the category of Prameyam.
•kṣhetra-jñaṁ chāpi māṁ viddhi
•sarva-kṣhetreṣhu bhārata kṣhetra-kṣhetrajñayor jñānaṁ
• yat taj jñānaṁ mataṁ mama
Thus all what we worshiped is not Brahman.
•Why should the scriptures be introduced at all?
•They are meant to be stepping stones to the ultimate truth which is that I am the Pramata.
•Thus in the beginning the Bhakti is dwaita when the God is object.
•In advanced stages the Bhakti is advaita and here the God is the subject.
•na tatrasūryo bhāti
•nemā vidyuto bhānti
•kuto'yamagniḥ | tameva bhāntam
•sarvamidaṃ vibhāti || 10 ||
•prātarbhajāmi manasāṁ vacasāmagamyaṁ
•vācō vibhānti nikhilā yadanugrahēṇa |
•yannēti nēti vacanairnigamā:'vōcan
•taṁ dēvadēvamajamacyutamāhuragryam || 2 ||
•yogarato vā bhogarato vā
•saṅgarato vā saṅgavihīnaḥ |
•yasya brahmaṇi ramate cittaṁ
•nandati nandati nandatyeva || 19||
•yanmanasā na manute yenāhurmano matam | tadeva brahma tvaṃ viddhi nedaṃ yadidamupāsate || 5 ||
•What one cannot think with the mind, but by which they say the mind is made to think, know That alone to be the Brahman, not this which (people) here worship. (5)
•yaccakṣuṣā na paśyati yena cakṣūm̐ṣi paśyati | tadeva brahma tvaṃ viddhi nedaṃ yadidamupāsate || 6 ||
•What cannot be seen by the eye, but by which the eyes are able to see. That alone know thou to be the Brahman; not this which (people) here worship.
•yacchrotreṇa na śṛṇoti yena śrotramim̐śrutam tadeva brahma tvaṃ viddhi nedaṃ yadidamupāsate || 7 ||
•What cannot be heard with the ear, but by which the ears are able to hear, That alone know thou to be the Brahman; not this which (people) here worship.
•yatprāṇena na prāṇiti yena prāṇaḥ praṇīyate | tadeva brahma tvaṃ viddhi nedaṃ yadidamupāsate || 8 ||
•What none breathes with the breath, but by which breath is in-breathed, That alone know thou to be the Brahman; not this which (people) here worship.
pratibodha viditaṃ matamamṛtatvaṃ hi vindate |
ātmanā vindate vīryaṃ vidyayā vindate'mṛtam || 2.4 ||
Contributed by Dr. Komal Prasad
taddha tadvanaṃ nāma tadvanamityupāsitavyaṃ sa ya etadevaṃ vedābhi hainaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtāni saṃvāñchanti || 4.6 ||
Contributed by Jyothi Kartik
Mantra 6 - GunavishisHta Upasanam
After the Atma vishya prashna, as a part of Atmalakshanam in chapters 1 & 2 of this upanishad, the guru explains Atma-Gnanam, Atmagnana-Phalam and Amritatva-prapthi which is immortality or freedom from fear of death
Run up to chapter 4
1.Brahma indriyamano-agocharam - the mind and sense organs cannot know Brahman.
2.Brahama-asthitvam. Through the Yaksha the existence of Brahman is proved.
3.The necessity for qualification for atmajnanam like humility & need for a guru
4.Srotrasya Srotram manaso mano yad is Brahman alone like hearing power of the ear, seeing power of the eyes etc.
5.Atmajnanam makes one glorious and great
6.This story is useful for practicing varieties of upasanas which is given in the 4th chapter
In chapter 3, This is taught in the form of a story.
In a battle between devās and asurās, the devās emerge victorious. They celebrate their victory, proudly claiming the victory as belonging to them; and the glory of the victory also, belonging to them.
To teach them a lesson, bhagavān appeared in the form of a brilliant yakṣa (yajna yogyaḥ itiyaksaha – one worthy of adoration or worship). Agni, Indra and Vayu were not able to identify the yakṣa. Supposedly all knowing, it was humiliating to them that there was someone or something they did not know, and they decided to find out who the yakṣa was. The yaksha challenged each deva to move a small blade of grass. The devas came one after another and failed the test. Finally, Indra in all humility, offered a prayer to the Lord. Then goddess Parvati appears and explains that the yaksha is none other than the Brahman or Atma which blesses all the success of the devas.
Through the main part of the story in this 3rd chapter, four messages are given about the teaching of brahman.
Brahma indriyamano-agocharam - the mind and sense organs cannot know Brahman. This is thefirst significance of this story.
The second significance revealed is Brahama-asthitvam. Through the Yaksha the existence of Brahman is proved.
The third significance is the necessity for qualification for atmajnanam like humility & necessity of a guru (here Uma devi)
The fourth significance is that all glories belong to Brahman alone like hearing power of the ear, seeing power of the eyes etc . Here Agni’s burning power, Vayu’s blowing power all belong to Brahman. Claiming any glory for yourself is mithya-abhimana/vanity.
In chapter 4 the fifth significance is given that Atmajnanam makes one glorious and great
The sixth significance - this story is useful for practicing varieties of upasanas
The fourth chapter has 9 mantras that contain some sadhanas. It also sets out the benefits of these sadhanas. 4 meditations (upasanas) are prescribed.
Vidyut Upasana (lightning, symbolizing the brilliance and fleeting appearance of the yaksha
Nimesa Upasana (winking of the eye) symbolizing the fleeting phenomenon
Manovriti Upasana (thoughts in the mind also flash and shine like the yaksha, yet are fleeting)
Tadvana Upasana (the Lord as the possessor of all glories i.e., the heat in the fire, the power in the wind, etc.)
We will focus on the saguna nature of the Atma in the 6th mantra that talks about Tadvana – The lord in adorable, worship-able form
taddha tadvanaṃ nāma tadvanam ityupāsitavyaṃ, sa ya etad evaṃ vedābhi hainagṃ sarvāṇi bhũtāni saṃvāñchanti
Brahman is called that adorable one in all. Brahman should be meditated upon “as that adorable one”. Whoever meditates on Brahman as the glorious one, he is adored by all beings.
So, the fourth upāsanā is guṇaviśiṣṭa brahma upāsanā. Meditation upon brahman or ĩśvarā with a particular glory or attribute. And the glory or attribute of ĩśvarā is indicated by a special word, tadvanaṃ.
What is meant by tadvanaṃ? it is the title of ĩśvarā revealing a particular glory. vanam means, adorable, worship-able. Adorable to whom? indrā, vāyu, agni. Why adorable to all of them? Because, agni discovered that'my burning power does not belong to me; but, it comes from bhagavān.' Therefore, agni developed adoration for the Lord, after his experience. Thus they all understood that their respective vibhũtis or glories come from ĩśvarā only. Tad means, that ĩśvarā, tadvanaṃnāma - is known to all by the title tadvanaṃ. Therefore, what is the upāsanā? tadvanamityupāsitavyaṃ - may you meditate upon ĩśvarā as tadvana viśiṣṭaḥ ĩśvaraḥ the adorable one.
The Upanishad gives the worldly benefit of this upāsanā. If you meditate upon ĩśvarā as the adorable one, the upāsakā will become, 'adorable to all! This is the benefit of sakāma upāsanā. If it is niṣkāma upāsanā, he will get all the qualities required for ātmā jñānam. When a meditator thus meditates upon a given idea eliminating all other ideas, he enjoys the fruit of his 'Upasana’. To a seeker striving to realise the Truth declarations in Vedanta, the sacred fruit of 'Upasana' is the invaluable spiritual treasure he earns in the form of his own powers of concentration and inner expansion.
With tadvana the upasana portion is over. Besides upasanas, the Kena Upanishad recommends karma yoga and also gaining values, such as austerity, sense control and truthfulness (tapaha, damaha, satyam). The Upanishad proclaims that by following the sadhanas and taking to AtmaVichara the seeker will eventually gain liberation.
GLIMPSE OF NEXT WEEK'S TOPIC
Contributed by Dr. Thimappa Hegde
•Om Sham No Mitrah Sham Varunnah
•satyaṃvada | dharmaṃcara
•mātṛdevo bhava | pitṛdevo bhava | ācāryadevo bhava | atithidevo bhava
•brahmavidāpnōti param. tadēṣā.bhyuktā
•satyaṅ jñānamantaṅ brahma.
The TaittiriyaUpāniṣhad .
•Shankaracharya’s bhàshyam is considered one of his most brilliant.
•Vidyaranya Swami , Anubuthi Prakasha.
•Shankaracharya says as “that in which freedom is hidden/kept.”
•Thus, when you study an upanishad you are studying yourself.
•You get total self-satisfaction, fulfilment in life itself.
TaittirìyaÀranyaka of Krishna Yajur Veda
•Taittirìya Àranyaka is made up of 10 chapters.
•Last four chapters are together called Taittirìya Upanishad.
•Shankaracharya’s commentary on the chapters 7, 8 and 9.
•The 10th chapter is the Mahà Nàràyana Upanishad.
•Shiksha Valli, Brahma Valli and Bhrigu Valli
Maha Shivaratri Special
•ॐ त्र्यम्बकं यजामहे सुगन्धिं पुष्टिवर्धनम् |
•उर्वारुकमिव बन्धनान्मृत्योर्मुक्षीय माऽमृतात् ||
•Aum Tryambakam yajaamahe sugandhim pushtivardhanam |
•Urvaarukamiva bandhanaan-mrityormuksheeya maamritaat ||
•We worship the three-eyed One, who is fragrant and who nourishes all.
•Like the fruit falls off from the bondage of the stem, may we be liberated from death, from mortality.
•aum = Pranava
•tryambakam = the three-eyed one
•yajāmahe = We adore, honor and worship.
•sugandhim = sweet fragrance.
•puṣṭi = A fullness of life.
•vardhanam = One who nourishes and strengthens health and wealth.
•puṣhṭi+vardhanam = The one who nourishes others and ensures their fullness.
•urvārukam-iva = like the cucumber
•bandhanāt = “from bondage”.
•mṛtyormukṣīya = Free, liberate From death.
•mā’mṛtāt = immortality.
Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-Idam
Om ShaantihShaantihShaantih ||