Contributed By Dr T Hegde
The greatness of the Gita
The Vedas are voluminous.
Lord Krishna has condensed the Vedas into Gita in 700 verses.
Adi Shankara study of the Gita, is study of the Vedas.
Iti Srimad Bhagavadgeetaasu Upanishatsu
Brahma Vidyaayaam Yogashaastre
Sri Krishnaarjuna Samvaade
Gita is a Scripture, Gospel, Testament, Shraddha
Krishna says this Gita knowledge should be given to one who fulfils the four conditions (tapa, bhakti, shushruya, anasuya)
It should not be given to those who do not deserve
We are the blessed ones.
idaṃ tē nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana |
na cāśuśrūṣavē vācyaṃ na ca māṃ yō'bhyasūyati || 18.67 ||
67. This (teaching given) to you should never be imparted to the one who is
without austerity, nor to the one who is not a devotee, nor to the one who is not
desirous of hearing, nor to the one who criticises ME.
•The Gita is 700 verses in Sanskrit divided into 18 chapters.
•Each verse has to be studied under the guidance of a qualified teacher.
•Gita is in verse form which can be sung.
Bhagavad Gita is a part of Mahabharatha, Composed byVyasacharya.
•It is in the form of a dialogue between Lord Krishna & Arjuna.
•Just as Democracy is of the people, for the people and by the people.
•The Gita is written by a house holder ( grihastha ), Vyasacharya for a house holder Arjuna and delivered by a house holder Lord Krishna.
•This is a user’s manual for a man steeped in worldly issues.
Adi Shankaracharya’s commentary on the Gita
•The Bhagavad Gita is the essence of all the vedas
•Therefore a thorough study of the Bhagavad Gita is as good as studying the entire traditional scriptural literature
Adi Shankarain the BhajaGovindam
•Bhagavad Gita Kinchitha Theerthaa Gangaa Jalalapi Kanikaa Peetha
•Sakruthapi Yaena Muraari Samarchaa Kriyathe Thasya Yamenana Charcha
•If a person reads a little from Bhagavad Geeta, Drinks a sip of water from Ganges. Worships Murari (Krishna) for a little moment, for them there are no arguments with Yama, [the lord of death].
Gita deals with several topics. Gita is moksha shastra.
There are several other topics like karma yoga, bhakti yoga, dhyana yoga, and ethical values .
Adi Shankaracharya clearly points out that the central theme / tatparyam of the Bhagavad Gita is
Self Knowledge as a means of Liberation.
•The message of the Gita is the same as the mahavakya in Chandogya Upanishad,
•Tat Twam Asi.
•Which means that the essential nature is divine.
•If we are already that why don’t we feel so.
18 chapters are divided into groups of 6
•1 to 6 Prathama Shatkam •Tvam – Karma Yoga - Effort
•7 to 12 Madhyama Shatkam. •Tat - Upasana Yoga - Grace
•13 to 18 Antima Shatkam. •Asi - Jnana Yoga - Values
Prathama Shatkam deals with Karma Yoga
•Proper action & Proper attitude.
•Proper action is selfless action.
•Proper attitude is Ishwara arpana bhava and prasada bhava.
•Karma yoga gives Jnana Yogyatha.
•Prathama Shatkamalso deals with proper effort.
•Success is dependent on – prayatna, daivam and kalam.
•The 2nd chapter is an excellent summary of the entire Gita.
•The 3rd chapter is an excellent manual on how to transform work into worship (karma yoga).
•The 6th chapter deals with all aspects of meditation (dhyana yoga) .
Chapters 7 to 12.Madhyama Shatkam. Bhakti, Nature of God, Grace.
•In order to foster bhakthi, one must have a clear idea of God
•From the 7th chapter onwards ,
•A wonderful creation must have an intelligent creator.
• 1.God initially as with form (eka roopa),
• 2. God as the entire universe (vishwa roopa)
• 3. God as the infinite formless (aroopa)
•The importance of being able to obtain Grace.
Anthima Shatkam. On Values. Asi Gnana Yoga
•In order to assimilate the true teachings of the Gita we must be morally upright.
•Otherwise the Gita message is only information and not an emotional transformation.
•Asi . The essential nature of each of us and the essential nature of God is identical.
•Like water in a wave and water in the ocean.
Once we learn to claim our limitlessness, poornatvam
•We can look at our lives objectively
•Will be able to accept their limitation
•Thus accepting the limitedness of the body and claiming the limitlessness of the spirit or atma will free us from the sense of helplessness
•This is called Jeevan Mukthi, freedom while alive in this limited body mind complex
An Overview of Gita
Source Of Action
atha kēna prayuktō'yaṃ pāpaṃ carati pūruṣaḥ|
anicchannapi vārṣṇēya balādiva niyōjitaḥ||3.36||
36. Arjuna asked: Oh Krishna! Then, prompted by what, does this person commit
sin, even though unwilling, as though he is forcibly persuaded?
kāma ēṣa krōdha ēṣa rajōguṇasamudbhavaḥ|
mahāśanō mahāpāpmā viddhyēnamiha vairiṇam||3.37||
37. The Lord replied – (It is) this desire. (It is) this anger. (It is) born of
Rajōguṇa. (It is) insatiable and very sinful. Know this (to be) an enemy in this
prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha manōgatān |
ātmanyēva''tmanā tuṣṭaḥ sthitaprajñastadōcyatē || 2.55 ||
55. The Lord Answered – Oh Arjuna! satisfied in himself by himself, when one
gives up all the desires obtaining in the mind, then, he is said to be (a man) of
yō māmēvamasammūḍhō jānāti puruṣōttamam |
sa sarvavidbhajati māṃ sarvabhāvēna bhārata || 15.19 ||
19. Undeluded, he who thus knows me, the puruṣōttamaḥ, is the knower of all.
He worships Me wholeheartedly, Oh Arjuna!
iti guhyatamaṃ śāstramidamuktaṃ mayā'nagha |
ētat buddhvā buddhimān syāt kṛtakṛtyaśca bhārata || 15.20 ||
20. O Arjuna! Thus this most secret teaching has been imparted by Me. Having
known this, one becomes wise and fulfilled, Oh Arjuna!
Ever Blissful state
ēṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha naināṃ prāpya vimuhyati |
sthitvā'syāmantakālē'pi brahmanirvāṇamṛcchati || 2.72 ||
72. Oh Arjuna! This is called brāhmī sthitiḥ. Having attained this one is not
deluded. Being established in this even at the time of death, he attains oneness
Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-IdamPuurnnaat-Purnnam-Udacyate
Om ShaantihShaantihShaantih ||